Friday, May 22, 2020

The American Dream Dead, Alive, Or On Hold - 916 Words

The concept of the American Dream has been with us as long as we have been a nation. In Brandon Kings â€Å"The American Dream: Dead, Alive, Or On Hold?† he presents us with his version of the American dream. According to Kings, the American dream is defined as â€Å"The potential to work for an honest, secure way of life and save for the future† (611). The American dream may differ between every individual and how they perceive it. To some, the American dream is to have a decent job and to be financially prosperous. However, to others, having a job is defined as just living paycheck to paycheck every passing month. The American dream to African Americans in 2015 basically designates opportunity, that is the opportunity to make an impact in life through tough work and dedication. . To me, the American dream means the ability to be financially stable and the liberation for the nightmares of racial strife to culminate. As Langston Hughes, an American poet, asserts in his poem â€Å"What happens to a dream deferred†, â€Å"Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun or fester like a sore and then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar cover- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode† Hughes describes what a dream is when it’s delayed. It’s like the American dream becomes a nightmare when there is no hope, to dream, or for example, if there is no way to gain financial stability. Then people will commence to defer their dreams and there would be anShow MoreRelatedThe American Dream : Dead, Alive, Or On Hold?1104 Words   |  5 Pagesworks, The American Dream: Dead, Alive, or on Hold?, debates his interpretation of the notion of the American Dream and whether the concept is dead, alive, or on hold. The speaker emphasizes his belief that the common phrase is still alive within America and that one must work hard in order to achieve it. When it comes to the topic of the America n Dream, King will eagerly agree that the idea is still alive and thriving in the minds of Americans; however, I deem that the idea is on hold within AmericanRead MoreThe American Dream : Dead, Alive, Or On Hold? Essay1940 Words   |  8 PagesIn the essays â€Å"The American Dream: Dead, Alive, or on Hold?† by Brandon King and â€Å"Confronting Inequality† by Paul Krugman, the authors discuss a wide variety of ideas that affect or maintain the idea of income inequality in America today. In the essay by Brandon King, he clearly states that the values of the American Dream are still alive today, but are getting harder and harder to achieve for the average person. King argues that the American Dream of today has drastically changed from what it usedRead MoreThe American Dream : Dead, Alive, Or On Hold?1430 Words   |  6 PagesUnited States has a dream, or better yet known as the American Dream. What is the American Dream? Well, Brandon King, author of â€Å"The Amer ican Dream: Dead, Alive, or on Hold?† quoted James Truslow Adams, who wrote that the American Dream â€Å"is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability and achievement, regardless of coral class or circumstances of birth†(610). Everyone’s American Dreams are all different, butRead MoreThe American Dream : Dead, Alive, Or On Hold? Essay1034 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Dream The United States is often referred to as a melting pot, and for good reason. America consists of a diverse mix of race, religion, and cultures. Immigrants have been coming to America for decades. They are in search of a better life and living the American dream. The American dream and what it represents has many different interpretations. However, most can agree that the American dream resembles a life of freedom, opportunity, and prosperity. Many Americans associate significantRead MoreThe American Dream : Dead, Alive Or On Hold?872 Words   |  4 Pages The Dream Itself Many years ago today, the United States of America was the prime example of prosperity and opportunity. It established America with the idea that its citizens would be guaranteed life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Today, it is true that people have liberties and are free to pursue happiness. However, in recent years, in the worst recession since the Great Depression. Unemployment, growing economy inequality, and medical care have skyrocketed. Despite the odds, the AmericanRead MoreThe American Dream : Dead, Alive, Or On Hold By Brandon King953 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Dream The American Dream is one of those terms that people refer to when talking about immigration, financial status, and so much more. But what does the term really refer to? People used to think of the American Dream as financial prosperity, religious and financial freedom, and all around success. Now, the term may mean something similar, but people are much less focused on it. If anything, the American Dream today is focused on gaining material goods and proving your bank accountRead MoreAnalysis Of The American Dream1063 Words   |  5 Pagesthe American Dream? Is it home ownership, gaining fame or wealth, having a great family or is it gaining a peace of mind? Many people have different versions of what the American Dream is, some people believe the dream is lost, and some people are right in the middle and still believe the American Dream is still alive. â€Å"The American Dream† by Brandon King debates about what the true state is left in the American Dream now. Throughout the essay, King asks if the American Dream is dead, alive, on holdRead MoreHow Hard Will You Work For The American Dream959 Words   |  4 Pageswork for the american dream The issue of whether or not the american dream is dead, alive, or on hold has become very important lately to the working class american. with trillions of dollars lost in the stock market crash and high unemployment rates.There is a nation wide panic on whether or not we can as a country bounce back. In fact in the article â€Å"The American Dream; dead, alive, or on hold.† King claims that the ideas of the so called â€Å"American Dream† are still very much alive. (King pg2 p1)Read MoreA More Perfect Union : The American Dream Essay1270 Words   |  6 PagesOn eighteen century America, the founding fathers classified the American Dream as an idea that everyone living in the United Stated had the chance to achieve the Jeffersonian idea of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. At the time the American Dream was supposedly possible to anyone who had the willingness to work hard and honestly. To the founding father s anyone who would stand by this saying would ei ther achieve success or be emulated for their efforts, even those who did not achieveRead MoreAmerica s The American Dream1277 Words   |  6 Pagesinterpretations of what the American dream is, but we all can agree that it is a concept that provides us with the hope for a better life. It is a dream of experiencing life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To some people, the American dream is about being wealthy, practicing liberty, to believe in any religion, and to have better opportunities in life. Throughout history, many immigrants have migrated to America because they want to begin a new life and achieve the American Dream. Many can debate

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Analysis Of Josephine Baker, An Iconic African American...

Josephine Baker was an iconic African-American dancer, singer, actress and civil rights activist. Her rise to fame included her erotic dancing, her comedic expressions and her risquà © sense of style. She was well known for her â€Å"Danse Sauvage† and her most famous â€Å"Banana skirt dance†. She was a unique artist that differed from the rest. With that being said, I would like to focus the main aspect of this paper on her originality of tackling racial stereotypes through performing, her unique sense of style as a world-famous entertainer, and most importantly her evolutionary â€Å"banana skirt dance†. To begin with, Josephine Baker’s rise to fame began in 1925 as a dancer, when she moved from the United States to Paris, France where she performed in La Revue Nà ¨gre at the Thà ©Ãƒ ¢tre des Champs-Elysà ©es. She was an immediate sensation, because of her erotic dancing and sense of style. More particularly, Josephine Baker and her dance partner Jo e Alex performed the â€Å"Danse Sauvage† which is a French saying for â€Å"wild dance†. This dance performance was only the beginning of her long, successful career as a performer. Josephine Baker’s dance form was different from many other African American artists during that time era, which is why she was so heavily adored. On stage Josephine baker would dress in over-the-top outfits, most of which bared her almost nude. During the Danse Sauvage, Josephine baker dawned only a small feather skirt, which made her sense of style risquà ©, yet loved by many French

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

An Ideal Hero Greek vs. Roman Free Essays

EvansHUM 2210 REVIEW SHEET EXAM 1 LISTS 1. Features that identify a society as â€Å"civilized† a. Agriculture (irrigation) and breeding of animals = surplus food (goats, peig, cattle, sheep). We will write a custom essay sample on An Ideal Hero: Greek vs. Roman or any similar topic only for you Order Now Wheat, barley, rice, and maize. (SciTech- polish stone tools. Ex: stone sickles) b. Cities: large apartment settlements= standard architecture surplus manpower c. Writing (â€Å"gifts of the gods†)= records. Pictograph, ideogram, cuneiform. d. Institutions for centralized inherited power . – Priesthood for centralized sacred ritual – Kingship for centralized political and social structure (Paraoh= kings in Egypt) . 2. Geographical areas of early civilizations (Attached) 3. Ages of early Greek mythology to Ovid ( Poet of Metamorphoses) a. Origin of humans: sacred clay (wise and rulers) blood of titans (murderous and criminals), and stones(endurance) b. 4 ages as decline: Golden (peace), Silver (seasons farming), Bronze (war), Iron (mining, deforestation, crime). 4. Dominant and alternate cultural themes in the Iliad Audience: upper-class men Purpose: cultural propaganda. Greek Heros= models of courage skill to men (what to be) women (what to look for- sense of security). a. Dominant Theme: warrior code of personal honor and glory b. Contrasting themes: Family principle, simple country life vs. war, admiration of enemies. 5. Literary works by Homer Blind poet Homer – represents the culmination of a long and vigorous tradition in which oral recitation—possibly to instrumental accompaniment—was a popular kind of entertainment. Iliad, Odyssey. 6. Major column types in Greek architecture (know the parts) a. Doric: Plan projects strength, power. Useful for king or state intimidate? Temple to powerful gods. b. Ionic: elegant, sophisticated. Useful for gods and people of wisdom. Libraries. c. Corinthian: more sophisticated. Projects wealth and power that comes with it. Useful to imperial Rome to intimidate and amaze. Makes the emperor or state look all powerful, even if they aren’t! [pic] 7. Major parts of architectural buildings on the Acropolis of Athens (City on the hills. Ex: Propyleia Parthenon) a. Propylaia: Monumental entrance as the gate/threshold into the sacred hill. b. Athena Nike: shrine to Athena as goddess of victory. Guardian of the hill. c. Parthenon (the Virgin) East Pediment (front): birth of Athena. Born from the head of Zeus= intuition. Feminine principle of wisdom, sacred bird is the one. – West Pediment (back): Competition between Athena Poseidon for Athens. Ancestors chose Athen’s gift for the olive tree= they preferred to war. Athenians all sheer this wisdom and desire for peace. – The metopes (framed carvings on each side): the victories over the Amazons, centaurs, giants, and Trojans/Persians = justice prevails over brute force, aggression. 8. Major philosophers of the Greek Classical and Hellenistic periods Greek Classical: a. Moral: Socrates Dialectic Method= critical approach. Question answer search for â€Å"Truth† – â€Å"Knowledge is virtue† â€Å"to know the good is to do the good. † – â€Å"The unexamined life is not worth living† – â€Å"Produced skeptics (only believe what is absolutely certain) agnostics (don’t believe what is not known for certain). b. Social: Plato – Student of Socrates; Founded Academy in Athens, 387 B. C. – Theory of Forms: where is â€Å"Truth†: uncanning, state Level 4: Knowledge= certainties Level 3: Thinking= math geometry abstracts Lower Levels: Opinions Level 2: Beliefs (â€Å"Material world is true gone. ) Level 1: Imaginings (â€Å"Images [art] = reality) – Allegory of the Cave. Truth is painful. c. Logic: Aristotle – Student of Plato, founded school in Athens, 335 B. C. – Organ ized natural sciences into biology, zoology, botany – Theory of Universals: Inductive Science: Universals discovered from particulars, therefore studying the material world can (only) produce universals/ absolutes. Plato’s dualism devalued study of material world. – Deductive/Formal Logic for ethics and science Hellenistic: a. Epicuranism – Founder: Epicurus (341-271 B. C. ) Atomist: all matter made up of atoms so all forms are random; no controls – No afterlife: death= end; no judgment – Absolute free will: each creates own destiny; absolute individuality – Goal of life: Pleasure (hedone hedonism) *individual pleasure - society would crush Pleasure: absence of pain. Pain unsatisfied desires. Minimal desires Peace pleasure; harmony = agreement between desires and fulfillment. Life of Moderation (Ex: credit card vs. cash budget). b. Stoicism *Resistance cause pain, learn to live the Stoic life. – Founder: Zeno (334-262 B. C. ) Social Logos (=Heraclitus): All natural and society controlled by reason. The destiny of one is the FOR THE GOOD OF THE WHOLE. Happiness accepting one’s destiny. – Suffering resisting predestined life – Stoic Goal: Evenness, dispassionate= no joy in success, no sorrow in failure. – Brotherhood of Man: Logos Lives in everything and everyone as fire DEFINITION (know the basic meaning or reference of each term) -Polytheism/monotheism: the belief in many gods/ the belief in only one god. – Post lintel: the simplest form or architectural construction, consisting of vertical members (posts) and supporting horizontals (lintels). Caste System: a rigid social stratification in India based on differences in wealth, rank, or occupation. – Muse/muses: music – Ziggurat: a terraced tower of rubble and brick that served ancient Mesopotamians as a temple-shrine. – Pharaoh: title of Egyptian king. – Dialectic: question-and- answer s tyle (Socrates) – Animism: the belief that the forces of nature are inhibited by spirits. – Homeopathic: power infused based on likeness or imitation. *exaggerates sometime. – Hellenistic: followed by the Classical era; the blending of Greek, African, and Asian cultures. – Pantheism: the belief that a divine spirit pervades all things in universe. Contagion: power transferred by contact. – Stoic Logos: Seminal Reason, through which all things came to be, by which all things were ordered, and to which all things returned. – Myth: story form (poetry) vs. philosophy or scientific explanation; typically involving gods and ancestors with supernatural power. Purpose: to order universe and society. – Ethnocentric: the belief in the inherent superiority of one’s own ethnic group or culture. – Epicureanism: Happiness depending on avoiding all forms of physical excess; valued plain living and the perfect union of body and mind. Gods played no part in human life, and death was nothing more than the rearrangement of atoms which the body and all of nature consist. – Covenant: contract; the bod between the Hebrew people and their god. – Yin/Yang: the principle, which ancient Chinese emperors called â€Å"the foundation of the entire universe,† interprets all nature as the dynamic product of two interacting cosmic forces, or modes of energy, commonly configured as twin interpenetrating shapes enclosed within a circle. Yang- male principle: lightness, hardness, brightness, warmth, and the sun. Ying- female principle: darkness, softness, moisture, coolness, the earth. Metope: the square panel between the beam ends under the roof of a structure. – Plato’s Theory of Forms:where is â€Å"Truth†? Above: perfect world of forms: originals, absolute, uncanning state. Below: imperfect world of matter: copies, changing, opinions. – Ideal tragedy: hero’s life changes f rom fortune to misfortune due to intellectual error. – Pediment: the triangular space forming the gable of a two-pitched roof in Classical architecture; any similar triangular form found over a portico, door, or window. – Epic History: a long narrative poem that recounts the deeds of a legendary or historical hero in his quest for meaning or identity. IDENTIFICATION: Know who or what each refers to -Venus Figurines: sympathetic contagious magic for fertility of nature and humans. -Stone Henge: sacred space; limitation of celestial world? Sun and moon for their fertility power? -Parthenon: the outstanding architectural achievement of Golden Age Athens -Gate of Ishtar: one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon (main entrance), was built during the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II (604- 562 BC), after he burned Jerusalem. Starting point for Nebuchadnezzar II, after he bought the kingdom of Judah to an end; he wants to beautify the capital. Achilles: Achaean (Greek) hero of the Trojan War, the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer’s Iliad. -Plato: Wrote the famous treatise, Republic. Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens. -Hammurapi: sixth king of Babylon, known for the set of laws called Hammurabi’s Code, one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. -Athena: goddess of wisdom and war. -Sophocles: second of the great tragedians, developed his plots through the actions of the characters. He modified the ceremonial formality of earlier Greek tragedies by individualizing the characters and introducing moments of great psychological intimacy. Antigone -Confucius : Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. -Zeus: the powerful sky god. -Epicurus: Greek thinker who advocated Epicuranism. -Moses: the leader who led the Hebrews across the Red Sea. -Antigone: A tragic play wrote by Sophocles. Proceed from the last phase of the history of Thebes. The play deals with many issues: duty to family (generation) vs. duty to state/law; female willpower vs. male authority (gender) -Homer: poet who wrote Iliad and Odyssey -Aristotle: Student of Plato, Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. -Zeno: Founder of Stoicism. MAP (be able to match the culture with its geography) 2. Nile r. / Jerusalem/Egypt 3. Euphrates r. / Tigris r. Persia /Babylon/ Mesopotamia 4. Olympus /Athens/ Aegean Sea/ Greece [pic] How to cite An Ideal Hero: Greek vs. Roman, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Negative Effects of Rape Trauma free essay sample

During adolescent years, teenagers may suffer various types of social and emotional hardships. These difficulties have a serious effect on teenagers, mostly because of the transitional period in their life that they are going through. Adolescence is a time where one finds their inner self and chooses who and what they want to be. When growing up, teenagers are susceptible to various types of change through different experiences. Specifically, rape has an extremely harsh effect on adolescents during this vulnerable stage in their lives. In the fiction novel Speak, Melinda Sordino is permanently scarred by rape at a very young age, negatively affecting her life. The novel Speak, by Laurie Halse Anderson, and modern sources explore how rape trauma and depression lead to a lack of social support and loneliness. A victim of rape trauma is likely to experience effects of damaged social interactions and negative self-image. The article, â€Å"Ego-Identity Achievement and Perception of Risk in Intimacy in Survivors of Stranger and Acquaintance Rape,† by Siobhan L. We will write a custom essay sample on Negative Effects of Rape Trauma or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page McEwan, Anton de Man F., and Paul Simpson-Housley, discusses the symptoms of a rape victim by stating that they, Indeed may be more devastating with longer lasting symptomatology in certain areas of psychological functioning, such as self-blame, negative self-image, and impairedsocial relations (McEwan, de Man, Simpso-Hously 282). In relation to Melinda, this article helps support the impact that the rape had on her, including her low self-esteem. Melinda exemplifies this when she takes down the mirror in her room and places it in her closet, facing the wall, revealing the negative image that she has of herself (Anderson 17). This is shown again when Melinda is asked to go to a small get together by one of her classmates. She thinks to herself, Nope. I dont do parties. No thanks. I trot out excuses: homework, strict parents, tuba practice, late-night dentist appointment, have to feed the warthogs. I dont have a good track record with parties (Anderson 131). Melinda’s clear la ck of confidence in this situation potrays the impact that the rape had on her by showing the damage done to her social interaction skills. Melinda’s symptomatology demonstrates a lower self-image and debilitated social relationships that proceeded her rape trauma. As a result of rape, depression serves as a main symptom of the traumatic experience. Depression can lead into more serious outcomes, including suicidal thoughts and actions. Evidence found through the article, â€Å"Mood Instability, Mental Illness and Suicidal Ideas: Results from a Household Survey† by Steven Marwaha, Nick Parsons, and Matthew Broome, states that, â€Å"Likelihood ratio tests indicated that mental disorders [depression] and MI [mental instability] were individually more strongly associated with suicidal ideas† (Marwaha, Parsons, Broome 1434). Depression alone can ruin lives, making people consider serious actions, including suicidal behavior. Melinda has a direct connection to these statistics because she has acted upon her suicidal thoughts. At a point where Melinda’s depression envelops her, Melinda narrates, â€Å"I open up a paper clip and scratch it across the inside of my left wrist. Pitiful. If a suicide attempt is a cry for help, then what is this? A whimper, a peep? I draw little windowcracks of blood, etching line after line until it stops hurting† (Anderson 87). From this scene in the novel, Melinda’s self-harm proves to derive from her depression and mental instability. Melinda’s rape experience causes her to have severe depression and suicidal thoughts that lead to self-harm. Due to Melinda’s depression, there is a noticeable decrease of support from her family members and from her close friend, Heather. Family and friends are necessary aspects of someone’s life, espescially when that person is going through such a horrendous situation. According to the article â€Å"Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence,† by Jennifer A. Hall-Lande, Marla E. Eisenberg, Sandra L. Christenson, and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, defines family connectedness as, â€Å"a sense of closeness and caring from family members. It is one of the most important contributors to positive outcomes and psychological health of adolescents† (Hall-Lande, Eisenberg, Christenson, Neumark-Sztainer 3). From this definition of family connectedness, it is extremely significant for family members to offer support to one another, something that Melinda does not receive. Melinda frequently mentions her parents’ bad relationship and their strong hatred for one another (Anderson 125). In addition to having no support from her family members, Melinda also receives no support from Heather. When sitting at lunch with Melinda, Heather states, â€Å"You don’t like anything. You are the most depressed person I’ve ever met, and excuse me for saying this, but you are no fun to be around and I think you need professional help† (Anderson 105). Heather recognizes Melinda’s depression, and instead of supporting her, she attempts to disassociate herself with Melinda. After being deserted by her family and her only friend, Melinda is left with absolutely no social support. Following her rape trauma and depression, Melinda becomes socially isolated, relating to her loneliness. Researchers have agreed upon the concept that humans are in need of social relationships, which is known as a psychological theory. In the article â€Å"Perceived Social Isolation in a Community Sample: Its Prevalence and Correlates with Aspects of Peoples Lives,† by Graeme Hawthorne, PhD, researchers believe that, â€Å"Collectively, these [psychological theories] are consistent with the existential loneliness hypothesis; i.e. that people need to belong† (Hawthorne 140). This evidence helps support the idea that the feeling of not belonging will cause loneliness. In Speak, Melinda does not feel socially accepted and because of her rape trauma, she does not allow herself to become a part of any crowd. Due to Melinda’s rape, her social impairment discourages her to accept any possible relationships. This is demonstrated when Melinda mentions that she would ref use to wear anything seasonal if she were a part of the â€Å"Martha† clique, a group of popular girls at Melinda’s school (Anderson 69). When Melinda returns to school, she notices that everyone in her grade falls into groups of people. However, she quickly realizes that she does not fall into a group when she thinks to herself, â€Å"I am clanless†¦ I am Outcast† (Anderson 4). Anderson capitalizes â€Å"Outcast† to emphasize Melinda’s single-membered clan to the readers, primarily to depict how alone Melinda really is in her school. Along with having no family or friends to support Melinda, she is also surrounded by people who dislike and bully her in school. Melinda’s school plays a large role in the novel by encircling her in a bitter atmosphere almost everyday. Melinda is bullied when a girl grabs her hair and yanks it at a social event (Anderson 29). In this scene, Melinda was physically attacked by a peer. Melinda is disliked and feels down on herself, especially when a group of girls are laughing extremely loud, and she knows that it is about her (Anderson 4). Melinda is disconnected from her school, contributing to her social isolation. Throughout the novel, Melinda is overtaken with the feeling of loneliness, as a result of having the constant thought of not belonging. The aftermath of Melinda’s rape trauma has proven to lead to severely negative effects. Melinda demonstrates these effects by suffering through depression, isolation, and loneliness, all without any support. Because of Melinda’s rape and struggle through adolescence, she will forever be impacted. Melinda’s trauma was a chain effect; the rape led to negative self-image, leading to depression which was followed by a lack of social support, social isolation, and loneliness. If Melinda had not gotten the courage to speak, the effects that the rape had on her could have been a lot more severe and damaging. Adolescents can r elate to Melinda in the sense that experiencing traumatic events can have serious effects on a young person. Adolescents are constantly being exposed to these situations in the modern world, and all situations can affect one in their adolescent years, for it is the time that teenagers develop into themselves.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Free Essays on Taylorism

Modern History Sourcebook: Frederick W. Taylor: The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911 Frederick W. Taylor was a mechanical engineer whose writings on efficiency and scientific management were widely read. The founder of "systems engineering," the selection below is from a collection of his essays published in 1911. The essays were translated into several languages, giving his ideas an influence around the world INTRODUCTION PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, in his address to the Governors at the White House, prophetically remarked that "The conservation of our national resources is only preliminary to the larger question of national efficiency." The whole country at once recognized the importance of conserving our material resources and a large movement has been started which will be effective in accomplishing this object. As yet, however, we have but vaguely appreciated the importance of "the larger question of increasing our national efficiency." We can see our forests vanishing, our water-powers going to waste, our soil being carried by floods into the sea; and the end of our coal and our iron is in sight. But our larger wastes of human effort, which go on every day through such of our acts as are blundering, ill-directed, or inefficient, and which Mr. Roosevelt refers to as a lack of" national efficiency," are less visible) less tangible, and are but vaguely appreciated. We can see and feel the waste of material things. Awkward, inefficient, or ill-directed movements of men, however, leave nothing visible or tangible behind them. Their appreciation calls for an act of memory, an effort of the imagination. And for this reason, even though our daily loss from this source is greater than from our waste of material things, the one has stirred us deeply, while the other has moved us but little. As yet there has been no public agitation f... Free Essays on Taylorism Free Essays on Taylorism Modern History Sourcebook: Frederick W. Taylor: The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911 Frederick W. Taylor was a mechanical engineer whose writings on efficiency and scientific management were widely read. The founder of "systems engineering," the selection below is from a collection of his essays published in 1911. The essays were translated into several languages, giving his ideas an influence around the world INTRODUCTION PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, in his address to the Governors at the White House, prophetically remarked that "The conservation of our national resources is only preliminary to the larger question of national efficiency." The whole country at once recognized the importance of conserving our material resources and a large movement has been started which will be effective in accomplishing this object. As yet, however, we have but vaguely appreciated the importance of "the larger question of increasing our national efficiency." We can see our forests vanishing, our water-powers going to waste, our soil being carried by floods into the sea; and the end of our coal and our iron is in sight. But our larger wastes of human effort, which go on every day through such of our acts as are blundering, ill-directed, or inefficient, and which Mr. Roosevelt refers to as a lack of" national efficiency," are less visible) less tangible, and are but vaguely appreciated. We can see and feel the waste of material things. Awkward, inefficient, or ill-directed movements of men, however, leave nothing visible or tangible behind them. Their appreciation calls for an act of memory, an effort of the imagination. And for this reason, even though our daily loss from this source is greater than from our waste of material things, the one has stirred us deeply, while the other has moved us but little. As yet there has been no public agitation f...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

10 Fascinating Facts About Fleas

10 Fascinating Facts About Fleas Fleas?! Theyve (literally) plagued humankind for centuries, but how much do you know about these common insects? Lets start with these 10 fascinating facts about fleas. Fleas Are Infamous for Their Role in Transmitting the Black Death During the Middle Ages, tens of millions of people died of the plague, or Black Death, as it spread across Asia and Europe. Cities were particularly hard hit. London lost 20% of its population to the plague in just two years during the mid-1600s. It wasnt until the dawn of the 20th century, however, that we identified the cause of the plague – a bacterium called Yersinia pestis. What does this have to do with fleas? Fleas carry the plague bacteria and transmit it to humans. An outbreak of the plague often kills a large number of rodents, particularly rats, and those bloodthirsty, plague-infected fleas are forced to find a new food source – humans. And the plague isnt a disease of the past, either. Were fortunate to live in an age when antibiotics and good sanitation practices keep plague deaths to a minimum. Fleas Lay Their Eggs on Other Animals, Not in Your Carpet A common misunderstanding about fleas is that they lay their eggs in your carpeting and furniture. Fleas actually lay their eggs on their animal host, meaning if your dog Fido has adult fleas living in his fur, those adult fleas are doing their best to keep him infested with their offspring. Flea eggs, however, arent particularly sticky or well suited for staying put, so they mostly roll off your pet and land in his dog bed or on the carpet. Fleas Lay a Lot of Eggs Without intervention, a few fleas on Fido can quickly become a maddening flea infestation that feels impossible to defeat. Thats because fleas, like bed bugs and other bloodsucking pests, will multiply quickly once theyve found a good host animal. A single adult flea can lay 50 eggs per day if its well fed on Fidos blood, and in its short lifespan can produce 2,000 eggs. Adult Fleas Poop Blood Fleas feed exclusively on blood, using their piercing, sucking mouthparts to siphon it from their hosts. An adult flea may take as many as 15 blood meals in a single day. And like any animal, a flea produces waste at the end of the digestion process. Flea feces are essentially dried blood residue. When they hatch, flea larvae feed on this dried blood waste, which is usually left in the host animals bedding. Fleas Are Skinny Fleas typically inhabit the fur or feathers of host animals. If they were built like most bugs, they would quickly become entangled. Flea bodies are quite thin and smooth, making it easy for a flea to move freely between pieces of fur or feathers on their hosts. A fleas proboscis, the straw-shaped beak that enables it to pierce skin and siphon blood from its host, remains tucked under its belly and between its legs when not in use. Most Flea Infestations in Homes Are Cat Fleas, Even in Homes Without Cats Remarkably, scientists estimate there are over 2,500 species of fleas on the planet. Within the lower 48 U.S. states, flea species number approximately 325. But when fleas infest a human habitation, theyre almost always cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis. Dont blame kitties for this annoyance, though, because despite their common name, cat fleas are just as likely to feed on dogs as they are on cats. Dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) can also be a pest problem but are mainly found on dogs that spend all or most of their time outdoors. Giant Fleas Plagued Dinosaurs as Early as 165 Million Years Ago Compression fossils from Inner Mongolia and China suggest that fleas pestered the dinosaurs, too. Two species, dubbed Pseudopulex jurassicus  and  Pseudopulex magnus, lived in the Mesozoic era.  The larger of the two dino flea species, Pseudopulex magnus, was an impressive 0.8 inches long, with equally impressive mouthparts capable of piercing dinosaur skin. These ancestors of todays fleas lacked the ability to jump, however. Fleas Prefer Humid Environments Fleas dont thrive in low humidity, which is why they arent as much of a pest problem in arid areas like the Southwest. Dry air prolongs the flea life cycle, and when the relative humidity falls below 60 or 70%, flea larvae may not survive. Conversely, the flea life cycle accelerates when the humidity is high, so keep that in mind when trying to control a flea infestation. Anything you can do to dry out the air in your home will help you win the battle against these bloodthirsty pests. Fleas Are Skilled Jumpers Fleas dont fly, and they would never be able to catch your dog in a foot race (despite having six legs to Fidos four). So how are these tiny insects able to get around? Fleas are amazingly adept at flinging themselves into the air. Cat fleas, our most common flea pest, can propel themselves a full 12 inches forward or upward. Thats a jumping distance equal to roughly 150 times its own height. Some sources compare this to a human landing a long jump of nearly 1,000 feet. Fleas Aren't Picky About Whose Blood They'll Drink In 1895, the Los Angeles Herald offered some facts about fleas to its readers. The flea, the Herald writer declared, shows a preference for women, children, and persons with thin skins. Thick-skinned men may have been offered a false sense of security by this column because fleas will gladly drink whatever blood is available to them. Fleas are sensitive to the vibrations that travel through the floor as people and pets walk through the house. They can also detect the presence of carbon dioxide we exhale. Should a sound or scent suggest a potential blood host is nearby, the hungry flea will jump in its direction, without considering first whether the host is a man, woman, or child. Sources: Plague: The Black Death, National Geographic website. Accessed online October 18, 2016.Plague: Ecology and Transmission, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed online October 18, 2016.Ridding Your Home of Fleas, by Mike Potter, University of Kentucky Department of Entomology, fact sheet #602. Accessed online October 18, 2016.Some Facts About Fleas, Los Angeles Herald, Volume 44, Number 73, 23 June 1895, page 21.Physicians Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 6th edition, by Jerome Goddard.Fleas, Purdue University Department of Entomology. Accessed online October 18, 2016.Giant Bloodsuckers! Oldest Fleas Discovered, by Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience website, February 29, 2012. Accessed online October 18, 2016.Monster Fleas Put the Bite on Dinosaurs, by Jeanna Bryner, LiveScience website, May 2, 2012. Accessed online October 18, 2016.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Cannabis and Marijuana Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Cannabis and Marijuana - Essay Example Although marijuana can be beneficial in the treatment of ailments like glaucoma, cancer, multiple sclerosis, AIDS and also chronic pain, researchers like Jacques-Joseph Moreau have discovered that marijuana has numerous harmful effects on the brain and the functions of the human central nervous system. Usage of cannabis hinders movement and memory in the brain. Chemicals in marijuana, especially THC and cannabinoids directly alter the emotions, memory and function of a user's brain and central nervous system. Marijuana changes to brain function and behavior by impinging on the central nervous and attaching its elements to the neurons in the brain, thereby interfering with the natural communication between the brain's neurons. This interference causes the nerves to alter their normal behavior. For instance, after using cannabis, a nerve that was supposed to enable a person to retrieve short-term memory, tends to act do the opposite, because of the cannabinoids receptors. Thus, if a person has to recall his recent activities, maybe his activities during the last 5 minutes ago, that person will have a lot of trouble accomplishing this, if he has taken a high dose of cannabis/marijuana. Cannabis contains about 400 chemicals, and about 60 of them are known to be cannabinoids, that are psychoactive compounds that are produced inside the human body and brain after cannabis is metabolized. "Cannabinoids is known to be the active ingredient in marijuana, and "the most psychoactive cannabinoids ch emical in marijuana that has the biggest impact on the brain is THC (tetrahydrocannibol). tetrahydrocannibol is the main active ingredient in marijuana because it affects the brain by binding to and activating specific receptors, known as cannabinoid receptors. "These receptors control memory, thought, concentration, time and depth, and coordinated movement." (J. Bartholomew, S. Holroyd, and T. M Heffernan 2010) When a person uses cannabis and his or her memory is affected, the short-term memory will be triggered first, as marijuana damages short-term memory as a result of the fact that the element tetrahydrocannibol interferes with the processing of information by an area of the brain called the hippocampus, which is responsible for the proper formation of memory. "One region of the brain that contains a lot of tetrahydrocannibol receptors is the hippocampus, which processes memory. Hippocampus is the part of the brain that is important for memory, learning, and the integration of sensory experiences with emotions and motivation. It also converts information into short-term memory. As a steroid, tetrahydrocannibol also acts on the hippocampus and inhibits memory retrieval. tetrahydrocannibol also alters the way in which sensory information is interpreted. When tetrahydrocannibol attaches to receptors in the hippocampus, it weakness the short-term memory, and damages the nerve cells by creat ing structural changes to the hippocampus region of the brain. When a user has a high dose of marijuana, new information does not register into their brain and this may be lost from memory and they are not able to retrieve new information for more than a few minutes. There is also a decrease in the activity of nerve cells." (M. Yucel, N.